Ray Sphere Intersection


At this point, a complete picture has been created. const ON_Sphere&, ON_3dPoint&, ON_3dPoint& ) works is described in the header file comments for the function’s declaration. (It might work already much better if you put all lines into a single MeshRegion. This paper focuses on the acceleration of ray-triangle intersection operation which is the one of the most important operations in various applications such as collision detection and ray tracing. Here's what I have right now. Intersection when. In a more complex scene you should test for more possibilities - perhaps the sphere is behind the camera. That is orders of magnitude slower than computing ray-line intersection in compiled and vectorized code. Also any intersection of the x and y planes as described as sets or by an equation are one dimensional. This function takes r0, the ray origin, rd, the normalized ray direction, s, the sphere center, the sphere radius, and t, the out variable for returning the time. It is derived from substituting (x=Ax*z+Bx, y=Ay*z+By) into. the ray also also does not intersect with the sphere ii. It is straightforward to add nonuniform densities by adding a more sophisticated intersection method. testing if the sphere intersects the plane, or if the sphere intersects the negative halfspace of the plane. A plane and the entire part. Provides the operators: bool operator()(const Type_1& type_1, const Type_2& type_2); where Type_1 and Type_2 are relevant types among Ray_3, Segment_3, Line_3, Triangle_3, Plane_3 and Bbox_3. 2 Intersection of a Ray and a Box 143 6. The outer intersection points of the two spheres forms a circle (AB) with radius h which is the base of two spherical caps. To be as specific as I can: The following snippet is supposed to calculate the intersection point between a ray and a spherical boundary with a predefined radius and the origin as. Ray-Sphere Intersection • We have a ray in explicit form: • and a sphere of radius r and center c in implicit form • To find the intersection we need to find the solutions of p(t)=e + td f (p)=(p c) · (p c) R2 =0 f (p(t)) = 0. Both tensors contain NaNs when there is no intersections. There are two versions of this algorithm, a version that calculates the time of collision and a version that doesn’t. 4 Reflection and Refraction Vectors 6. unit -- directional unit vector from O to E local tmax = (E - O). Very fast, in fact: The version with the precomputed data is twice as fast as the Möller-Trumbore code that everyone seems to be using. The basic calculation underlying ray tracing is that of the intersection of a line with the surfaces of an object. scaled and translated unit sphere) Solution: intersection of ray with transformed primitive is the same as intersection with inversely transformed ray and primitive Intersect with transformed ray where and t for the intersection is the same in world and primitive space 8 M M-1. A method is presented here for performing this calculation for a new and powerful class of objects, those defined by sweeping a sphere of varying radius along a 3D trajectory. Means there is blurred images when object is not in focus as shown in below image. Let a: -3x + 7y = -10 be a line and c: x^2 + 2y^2 = 8 be an ellipse. Ray Tracing Gems Improving Temporal Antialiasing with Adaptive Ray Tracing Cool Patches: A Geometric Approach to Ray/Bilinear Patch Intersections Precision Improvements for Ray/Sphere Intersection Simple Environment Map Filtering Using Ray Cones and Ray Differentials A Fast and Robust Method for Avoiding Self-Intersection. Ray-Tracer in C++ from scratch. Only diagonally offset AABBs will pass the test. the ray contains the intersection point B. For example, even the geometric method may good enough for ray/sphere intersection evaluation, but it may not sufficient for ray/quardrics intersection. The problem with this is that the equation of the cylinder assumes that the. The intersection point between the unit sphere and the inverse transformed ray will be at some point. //===== // sketch: PG_RaySphereIntersection. Ray hits the sphere. (See Figure 9. Compute the intersection of a ray and a sphere. Ray-sphere intersection. , a signed-distance field) and an explicit representation (triangle mesh) of a sphere. If u is greater or equal to 0 but less than or equal to 1, the intersection occurs on the interval [pos0,pos1]. Ray intersection tests Reduces to solving for t •x = x s+ t x d •y = y s+ t y d •z = z s+ t z d Easiest is the sphere (x-x0)2+(y-y 0) 2+(z-z 0) 2=r2 Substitute ray equation in and solve for t CSE 472 S2019 25 Ray intersection with a sphere CSE 472 S2019 26 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 1,2 ( ) ( ) 2( ( ) ( ) ( )) 2 4 C x x y y z z r B x x x. Distance; return. In this section, vectors are expressed in bold while points are not. All intersection routines are based. Ray-Sphere Intersection II • Simplify to • Solve to obtain t0 and t1 where Check if t0, t1> 0 (ray) Return min(t0, t1) Ray-Sphere Intersection III • For lighting, calculate unit normal • Negate if ray originates inside the sphere!. creating a binary ray-tracing tree as seen in Figure 2. The regions whose description includes the word separated are outside the rounded box but inside the smallest aligned box containing the rounded box. Initializing color calculations. It's pretty common knowledge in the ray tracing community, but not really in the intersection. After find out the intersec point for ray and objects, the next issue is render the color for that point. Ray-Triangle Intersection We’ll find the intersection of the eye ray and a triangle in two steps, following the method described in Section 7. thechesswebsite Recommended for you. Computes primary & secondary intersection points of this sphere with the given ray. Here's a derivation of the ray-constant-medium intersection. A line segment ( segment for short ) is defined by two endpoints. Mathematical graph and charting software for geometry and statistics. Overrides:. Then instead of coloring the sphere white use the real material color. IntersectionTests. Ray-Sphere Intersection II • Simplify to • Solve to obtain t0 and t1 where Check if t0, t1> 0 (ray) Return min(t0, t1) Ray-Sphere Intersection III • For lighting, calculate unit normal • Negate if ray originates inside the sphere!. The outer intersection points of the two spheres forms a circle (AB) with radius h which is the base of two spherical caps. For ray tracing, we shoot one ray per pixel into the scene (allowing a single reflection from the specular sphere). Scene Structure Basic example. Coming back in time from a future where the. it will return true if there is intersection. Realistic lighting models are an important component of modern computer generated, interactive 3D applications. , 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA 00033 * 00034 ***** ggt-cpr end */ 00035. Equation of wall:. The test for intersection between a ray and a triangle is pretty easy, but you’ll find that it is extremely slow to test each triangle of a large OBJ. A sphere is centered at (1, 1, 1) with radius 2. Ray tracing is a powerful 3-dimensional rendering algorithm that produce highly re-alistic images of geometric data about a scene. From GLM_GTX_intersect extension. Computational geometry. Hair Reflection BSDF gives a direction which points into the sphere. I wrote it in C, but the basic algorithm is easier to understand in Python, in my opinion. That vector is then used for intersection checks with all the visible 3D objects. Line-sphere intersection a sphere can intersect in three ways: no intersection at all, at exactly one point, or in two points. Sphere-plane intersection of article Circle of a sphere: When the intersection of a sphere and a plane is not empty or a single point, it is a circle. For example, intersecting a ray with an ellipsoid can be reduced to intersecting a ray with a unit sphere (centered at the origin). To make calculations easier we choose the center of the first sphere at (0 , 0 , 0) and the second sphere. It is capable of producing a very high degree of visual realism, but at a greater computational cost. When I got some interesting data, the method is limited for specific object's surfaces (e. intersection () operation (or & operation). Back when I was in grad school I got inspired by Paul Heckbert’s business card ray tracer challenge and wrote my own version as a way to procrastinate from working on my thesis. Also, the proposed hardware architecture is general for intersection operations of other object pairs such as sphere vs. update: after a spontaneous and much appreciated proofread by Hector Arellano the main difference between ray casting and ray marching, is the fact that ray casting uses explicit equations while ray marching uses implicit equations to render the scene. I'm not really into the topic of collision detection, but what might work is placing a ray at the sphere's center which is pointing in the same direction as the plane normal (which points away from the sphere) and find the intersection point of the ray and the plane. Reflections can be simulated by casting a second ray off the surface in the reflected direction. Compute the intersection of a ray and a triangle. For example, this is a common calculation to perform during ray. The intersection of a line and a sphere (or a circle). The sharp green feature intersecting the blue object is not captured by any ray, neither is the intersection between the smooth thin red and green parts. The intersection of two or more sets is the set of elements which are common to all sets. An ellipsoid can be viewed as the image of an affine transformation applied to the unit sphere. If the ray doesn't hit anything. What is the difference between Line Segment and Ray? • A line segment is a smaller section of a straight line and has a finite length and distinctively identified on a drawing by the points at the both ends. Ray-Sphere Intersection. the surface of the sphere. Algorithm example 3 - Ray sphere intersection. Basics on How To Make a Scene. (See Figure 9. Ray - Sphere Intersection Visualization. For a kaleidoscope effect, the angle of intersection between any pair of mirrors must divide evenly into 180 degrees. A ray is distinctively marked by the arrowhead on one side of the line drawn. Calculating shadows in a raytracer is really easy. Exactly one solution, if b*b-4. Put the x, y, z equations of the bullet into the sphere equation and solve the quadratic equation for t. If you draw a ray with a pencil, examination with a microscope would show that the pencil mark has a measurable width. A disk is generally defined by a position (the disk center's position), a normal and a radius. 15-462 Computer Graphics I Assignment 7 - Ray Tracing 150 points Overview. Chapter 16 - CSG ray intersection test gives wrong t value. The solutions for \(t\) are given by \($ \frac{-b \pm \sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a} \)$ The number of intersections depends on the value of \(b^2-4ac\). Ray-Sphere Intersection We've already seen a parametric representation of a sphere! Because it's a 2D surface, we needed 2 parameter variables and : But since our rays are in parametric form, it's going to be easier to intersect a ray with an implicit equation for the sphere. Thus, a vector in the same direction of but having length 1 is 2 2 2 2 a b b a b a + +. This will include loading such meshes from STL files, performing the intersections, as well as visualizing the mesh, lines, and points in VTK. The other end is a point. Still, a fast and reliable method for computing the primitive-primitive intersection is desired. If there is another object between the intersection and the light, the point is in shadow. This means that we can refer to their position not as a point in 3D space, but as the distance on the view. Finds if there is a intersection of sphere and ray integer gSRx (vector Sp, float Sr, vector. Means there is blurred images when object is not in focus as shown in below image. However, couldn't figure out how. We will check the entry point first, and only use the exit point if the other one is not valid. Inserting a general line equation: Into sphere surface equation: Gives a quadratic equation for t in terms of the known input vectors and R. Hope it helps. Ray Tracing with OptiX A Tutorial for Developers David McAllister and James Bigler. The test for intersection between a ray and a triangle is pretty easy, but you’ll find that it is extremely slow to test each triangle of a large OBJ. We will also learn how to create a large. The previous posts documented methods for checking for different forms of collision. origin() - center; auto a = dot(r. And the existence of a solution is defined by the delta, or the expression under the square root: If this expression is less than 0, there is no intersection, if it exactly 0, the line is a tangent to the circle, and if it is greater than 0, the line intersects at two points. In a more complex scene you should test for more possibilities - perhaps the sphere is behind the camera. For example, even the geometric method may good enough for ray/sphere intersection evaluation, but it may not sufficient for ray/quardrics intersection. Automatic bounding is unreliable for cubic splines. For each sphere in the input list, if the ray intersects (determined using the sphere_intersection_point function), add a pair to the list to be returned containing the sphere and the intersection point. The overlap and intersection of the pixel ray with the sphere can be solved by replacing x in the sphere equation, with the ray equation. Circles and Planes. What if we want to perform ray-ellpisoid intersection checks? One way is to make a new intersection function with rays and ellipsoids. The trick here is that intersectRay() is FAST when shot at spheres and geospheres because it uses their mathematical representation and NOT the mesh faces (as long as the sphere is not collapsed and does not have modifiers). The intersection of that plane with the unit sphere is the geodesic light ray. geometric calibration and detector distortion correction. , a signed-distance field) and an explicit representation (triangle mesh) of a sphere. Decyphering the Business Card Raytracer. If there's an intersection, we calculate the point on the ray closest to the center of the object and return the squared distance between them. Our objective now is to determine the intersection equation between a given line and a sphere it must be a set of (x,y,z) points which satisfies both equations. Experts in rendering share their knowledge by explaining everything from nitty-gritty techniques that will improve any ray tracer to mastery of the new capabilities of current and future hardware. Intersection detection also plays a role in computer graphics in general as an ingredient in acceleration data structures, such as bounding volume hierarchies or Kd-trees. Ray-Sphere Intersection. , - 10 ), 2. Ray-Triangle Intersection We’ll find the intersection of the eye ray and a triangle in two steps, following the method described in Section 7. A ray reflected at the vertex makes an equal angle w. Additionally the vectorized intersection function will be taking a mask, which determines which rays should be touched by the function in the first place. I have only drawn two primary rays in this case. Intersection of a sphere and a cylinder The intersection curve of a sphere and a cylinder is a space curve of the 4th order. I removed the offset and started working for me. In a more complex scene you should test for more possibilities - perhaps the sphere is behind the camera. Either way, it boils down to a line-plane intersection test (since the cylinder is comprised of a bunch of polygons, which are themselves bounded planes). To find the intersection point on sphere we can replace the returned value of t from the above method into ray equation, which in turn give us the intersection point on closest sphere. Ray/Sphere Intersection Summary 1. If the distance from pc to the ray is greater than the ray then there is no intersection (sphere A in the above figure). It handles vectors, matrices, complex numbers , quaternions , coordinates , regular polygons and intersections. The radius of the enclosing sphere is given as (34) The bounding test computes intersection of a line with a sphere. You cast a ray from the camera's point in 3D space through a pixel in a 2D grid of pixels (the screen), and you solve, mathematically, for the intersection of the sphere and the ray. Multi-jittered sampling for the primary. However, if the sphere has been transformed to another position in world space, then it is necessary to transform rays to object space before intersecting them with the sphere, using the world-to-object transformation. For example, even the geometric method may good enough for ray/sphere intersection evaluation, but it may not sufficient for ray/quardrics intersection. Checkboxes let you show or hide incoming, refracted, reflected, and outgoing beams, so you can more clearly visualize each effect separately. Compute the intersection of a ray and a triangle. Ray-sphere intersection: algebraic • Solution for t by quadratic formula: - simpler form holds when d is a unit vector but we won't assume this in practice (reason later) - I'll use the unit-vector form to make the geometric interpretation 5. Basics on How To Make a Scene. The intersection point on the sphere is used to spawn three shadow rays towards the area light. Step by Step Math Worksheets Solvers New ! Find Points Of Intersection of Circle and Line - Calculator. Geometric Library. Very fast, in fact: The version with the precomputed data is twice as fast as the Möller-Trumbore code that everyone seems to be using. A quick note: I’ve multiplied the sphere radii by 1. I already have a code for ray-sphere intersection coordinates, and it works fine, in a GUI figure. Slide 17 of 23. 2 intersection points of line and sphere A. , and also a physical shape. The ray-disk intersection routine is very simple. the surface of the sphere. We have a ray, and a sphere, we know the ray's origin point, and it's direction, and we know the location of the sphere's center point. Moving Sphere/Triangle: (location) Similar to above, turn the sphere into a ray. Performs a ray intersection using the specified position and direction. Realistic lighting models are an important component of modern computer generated, interactive 3D applications. Ray-Sphere Intersection Ray : x (t ) x0 td Sphere : x x 1 0 Substitute: x0 td x0 td 1 0 : d d t2 2 x0 d t x0 x0 1 0• Quadratic in t - 2 solutions: Ray passes through sphere - take minimum value that is > 0 - 1 solution: Ray is tangent - use it if >0 - 0 solutions: Ray does not hit sphere• Numerical stability is very important. Ray Tracing Gems Improving Temporal Antialiasing with Adaptive Ray Tracing Cool Patches: A Geometric Approach to Ray/Bilinear Patch Intersections Precision Improvements for Ray/Sphere Intersection Simple Environment Map Filtering Using Ray Cones and Ray Differentials A Fast and Robust Method for Avoiding Self-Intersection. Ray-Sphere Intersection Last time we played with a "canonical camera": Eye is at the origin (0, 0, 0) Looking down the negative z axis Viewport is aligned with the xy. Top 7 Aggressive Chess Openings - Duration: 9:39. The last thing we need to do with this triangle is solve for the length of d. AABB-AABB: 1087. Raytracing with Python I hope this page will inspire young programmers to see how easy it is to create something fun. grazingAltitudeLocation (ray, ellipsoid) → Cartesian3 Provides the point along the ray which is nearest to the ellipsoid. Recommend:webgl - Three. Compute the intersection of a ray and a sphere. Intersection queries for two intervals (1-dimensional query). intersection () operator returns the intersection of a set and the set of elements in an iterable. Performs a segment intersection using the specified two world positions. Finding Points of Intersection between Ray and Bounding Box tell where said intersection occurs. Computing methodologies. 1000 Forms Of Bunnies. Flexible intersection requests: Different modes: ray, sphere, box; Geometric shape intersection within the same frame; Performance-optimized; Full-featured scene graph; Performance-optimized object cluster system; Advanced LOD (Level of Detail) system: Different transition modes; Configurable reference points. See the GNU 00028 * Lesser General Public License for more details. Scene defined for the ray-tracing example. Intersection calculations •For each ray we must calculate all possible intersections with each object inside the viewing volume •For each ray we must find the nearest intersection point •We can define our scene using –Solid models •sphere •cylinder –Surface models •plane •triangle •polygon Graphics Lecture 10: Slide 7 Rays. I’m trying to intersect rectangular boxes with a sphere to form something similar to the AT&T logo, but actual slices of s sphere instead. For point, line, plane, sphere, circle Calc 3D calculates distances, intersections, and. Intersection Testing. Follow 13 views (last 30 days) Aldo on 21 Jun 2017. This paper focuses on the acceleration of ray-triangle intersection operation which is the one of the most important operations in various applications such as collision detection and ray tracing. I've also seen this. Rendering Algorithm; Here is the video: Code for part three is tagged on the Puray Github project. Topic: Intersection, Sphere. Intersects (BoundingSphere sphere) Checks whether the Ray intersects a specified BoundingSphere. We will check the entry point. The ray can also miss the sphere, hit the very edge of the sphere (both t values are the same), or be cast from inside the. This is useful when a Raycast does not give enough precision, because you want to find out if an object of a specific size, such as a character, will be able to move somewhere without colliding with anything on the way. There are many places in this book where an expert on the subject could fairly say, \there is a faster way to do that" or \a more sophisticated approach is possible," but in every case where I have had to make a choice, I have leaned toward making this as gentle an intro-. Let a: -3x + 7y = -10 be a line and c: x^2 + 2y^2 = 8 be an ellipse. Are we allowed to #include ? I mean, it's an external library, but it's a very popular one… If yes, then this is my result: The idea is the following: for each "pixel" of the screen, shoot a ray from the middle of the pixel, down the Z d. (No full GI. It takes a 3D point as a parameter, and returns a value that indicates how distant that point is to the object surface. This sketch is created with an older version of Processing, and doesn't work on browsers anymore. Normal) - plane. GEOMETRY, a MATLAB library which carries out geometric calculations in 2, 3 and N space. The reciprocal-space of a crystal (blue), contains an array of peaks. 5 Intersection of a Ray and a Torus 6. My ray tracer implements Process. The fastest way is to use a geometrical approach, reducing the problem to finding the intersection between the atmospheric sphere and the view ray from the camera. (See Figure 9. See Gomez and RTR4, free Collision Detection chapter. out = intersect(out, origin, direction, center, radius) Determines if the 3D ray (origin, direction) intersects with the 3D sphere (center, radius). First, it simplifies the process to convert the ray to the sphere's object space, which means that the sphere will be centered at (0,0,0). The intersection point between the unit sphere and the inverse transformed ray will be at some point. Anderson Foundation seeks to promote a sustainable society by supporting and pioneering initiatives that harmonize society, business and the environment for the present generation and tomorrow’s child. The ray/polygon intersection test is a combination test. You cast a ray from the camera's point in 3D space through a pixel in a 2D grid of pixels (the screen), and you solve, mathematically, for the intersection of the sphere and the ray. , intersecting lines/rays with surface meshes, and retrieving the coordinates of those intersection points. This last method is a nice middleground between the "hacky" pure-OpenGL implementation, and having to integrate a fully-featured physics engine just to do raycasts and picking. Hi all, I need to use sphere intersection. My ray tracer implements Process. 0 tests per ms. The intersection is computed using two dot products on Vectors. Coming back in time from a future where the. 3D Coordinates, Floats and Vectors 3. unit -- directional unit vector from O to E local tmax = (E - O). Theory of computation. A ray is built atop vectors. A plane is a flat surface that extends indefinitely. CPU ray tracer 02 - Uniform grid >> CPU ray tracer 02 - Uniform grid << CPU ray tracer Ray tracing algorithm generates an image by tracing the path of light through pixels in an image plane. static Cesium. See Gomez and RTR4, free Collision Detection chapter. Ray-Object Intersection Most of the computation in ray tracing is determining ray object-intersection When a ray intersects an object, we need to know: Point of intersection Normal of surface at point of intersection Ray-Sphere Intersection The Sphere A sphere can be defined by: Center (x c, y c, z c) Radius r Equation of a point (x s, y. Code would be something like this. Lecture 13: Ray Sphere Intersection October 9, 2018. js 318 Computes the intersection points of a ray with a sphere. Note: direction must be normalized before calling this method If no intersection occurs, returns null. I think my ray-sphere intersection code is still faster, but spheres are not very useful for generic scenes. or the intersect distance is greater than that of an intersect test with another object 2) The ray hits the sphere from the outside - When the discriminant is greater than zero, and the two calculated intersect distances are positive. Regular Polygon. We can do a ray-sphere intersection test to determine if each pixel can "see" the sphere. Ray-Triangle Intersection We’ll find the intersection of the eye ray and a triangle in two steps, following the method described in Section 7. Go to tutorial… Ray to Sphere. As camera coordinate and world coordinate are the same we just have to compute ray/sphere intersection (code taken from this blog). sphere, box, cylinder…) and it needs to know object's position and radius; it is not my case. Consider a ray out from that point - how far does that ray travel in the intersection of the cylinders?. How can a ray tracer know this? One way is to shoot the ray at each of the sub-objects. The Equations. Casts a sphere along a ray and returns detailed information on what was hit. if Delta==0 then there is a single intersection point (the line touches the sphere) the unique solution is d=-b/2a (from there use the parametric equations to compute the coordinates of the intersection point). Ray tracers are widely used to render photorealistic images and animations. static Cesium. The sphere-ray intersection code therefore lives on in the sphere class. Curve Example. To find these points, we insert the equation of the ray in for P to give (P0 +t dir Pc) (P0 +t dir Pc) = r2 and solve for t. This corresponds to the ray missing the sphere entirely. If the ray hits the bounding sphere. the ray contains point intersection points B. Methods for distinguishing these cases, and determining equations for the points in the latter cases, are useful in a number of circumstances. Ray-tracing step and the exact definition of close to detailed. A reasonably speedy Python ray-tracer. · Explain Why Dec 24 2014, 10:56 PM This revision was automatically updated to reflect the committed changes. $O$ is origin and $C$ is center of the sphere. In another project I’m trying to render the scene using ray tracing method on GPU. I was surprised to see that there are not that many resources available; there are some, but not nearly as many as on the intersection of a ray and a sphere for example. RE: Intersection of a line and the surface of a sphere electricpete (Electrical) 4 Jul 09 21:13 I presume with some work you could solve the quadratic equation by hand to give the desired solution t in terms of all the coordinates. Find Object Intersections with rc‐th ray Ray generic object intersection best found by using implicit form of each shape. Chapter 3 and Chapter 5 study note of Ray Tracing: the Next Week. This means that we can refer to their position not as a point in 3D space, but as the distance on the view. If the ray does not hit the bounding sphere, there is no point shooting a slow ray intersection at the enclosed geometry. In ray marching, you have an origin point and a direction just like ray tracing but you travel at increments checking if the point lays inside of any objects. Image manipulation. For simplicity, I'll assume that you only want points on the ray where it enters or kisses the sphere, forward from the start point. We have shadows on the lower plane and the green sphere, but also a lot of. 5 pigment {checker Green White }} intersection {box { - 1, 1} sphere {0, 1. 7, opaque sphere_sweep objects based on B-splines or cubic splines may show artifacts when used in a CSG intersection or difference. Ray hits the sphere. Sphere equation: (x-x c)2 + (y-y c) 2 + (z-z c) 2 = R2 2. Relevant herein means that a line primitive (ray, segment, line) is tested against a planar or solid primitive (plane, triangle, box. If there is no intersection, use the full R, G, B of the background color. JMU Computer Science Course Information. Initializing color calculations. Then instead of coloring the sphere white use the real material color. However, if the sphere has been transformed to another position in world space, then it is necessary to transform rays to object space before intersecting them with the sphere, using the world-to-object transformation. Working with POV-Ray: "Insert Menu Add-on". Edited: KSSV on 29 Aug 2017 Hello, I have ~800 rays passing through a surface, and I need the 3D coordinates where they each intersect that surface. set operations are performed in the 1D ray-space: – distributivity: P (A-B) = (P A) - (P B) – general ray-scene intersection is a collection of line segments (intervals in 1D ray-space) geometric transformations: – inverse transformation applied to a ray. Both tensors contain NaNs when there is no intersections. Hi, I know how to check if a ray intersects with a sphere and a polygon. The best idea I've come up with so far is quite similar to my solution for ray-sphere intersection: substitute the equation of the ray into the equation of the sphere and solving quadratically. A line from P and touches the sphere in T , I want to find T. Home Tags Archives About Search Unreal Frame Breakdown Posted on 2019-06-20 This is my Study of raytracing has been progressing into the second book Ray Tracing: the Next Week, which is a little bit more advanced. You can rate examples to help us improve the quality of examples. It ends with examples of ray tracing generated using the descibed algorithms. Otherwise, the intersection point is stored in out and then returned. r 2 = (x-cx) 2 +(y-cy) 2 +(z. 9/21/17 CSU CS 410 Fall 2017 ©Ross Beveridge & Bruce Draper P. For 3-dimensional geometry there are standard names for the unit vectors that point along. Intersection Testing. The correct point to return is the one that is. Our objective now is to determine the intersection equation between a given line and a sphere it must be a set of (x,y,z) points which satisfies both equations. Ray-Surface Intersection. I created a box, then copied it to an array, then created a sphere, moved it so that it overlapped the boxes. 3 Normal Vector Calculation 148 6. From GLM_GTX_intersect extension. They calculate the Ray for the Intersection Test from the Sphere Origin at two moments in Time, find the projected intersection, then "correct it" to compensate for the radius. Intersections behind the start point, or exiting the sphere, are ignored (this means a ray originating inside the sphere detects no collision). C++ (Cpp) Sphere::intersection - 3 examples found. Only diagonally offset AABBs will pass the test. However, couldn't figure out how. In this section, vectors are expressed in bold while points are not. This paper focuses on the acceleration of ray-triangle intersection operation which is the one of the most important operations in various applications such as collision detection and ray tracing. The regions whose description includes the word separated are outside the rounded box but inside the smallest aligned box containing the rounded box. This thesis examines the underlying geometery and physics of ray tracing as well as the algorithms associated with these concepts. 3 Intersection of a Ray and a Sphere 144 6. Once the 3D object is determined the test can be further refined to determine exactly which polygon was selected on that 3D object. Imaginary solution: no ray-sphere intersection Unique solution: tangential ray-sphere intersection Two real solutions: ray shoots through the sphere Similarly for most implicit surfaces: torus, cylinder, heart, … A Ray-traced Implicit Heart ! ! Image courtesy, Dan Skarda and Tomas Bily. Geometric Library. This allows us to assign to each ray (representing an orientation in space and thus an element of the sphere. If there is a double positive root the bullet grazes the sphere, and if there are two positive solutions, the bullet passes through the sphere. The detection of spherical markers in x-ray projections is an important task in a variety of applications, e. Intersecting a ray with a sphere is probably the simplest form of ray-geometry intersection test which is the reason why so many raytracers show images of spheres. For the ray-plane intersection step, we can simply use the code we have developed for the ray-plane intersection test. This will include loading such meshes from STL files, performing the intersections, as well as visualizing the mesh, lines, and points in VTK. Centre, plane. There are many places in this book where an expert on the subject could fairly say, \there is a faster way to do that" or \a more sophisticated approach is possible," but in every case where I have had to make a choice, I have leaned toward making this as gentle an intro-. Intersects (BoundingSphere sphere) Checks whether the Ray intersects a specified BoundingSphere. So far we can intersect a ray with a sphere, and calculate the normal at the intersect point, and in this article we will extend the raytracer to shade the sphere. Methods for distinguishing these cases, and determining equations for the points in the latter cases, are useful in a number of circumstances. The ray-disk intersection routine is very simple. Terrain Layout. 2 intersection points of line and sphere A. A sphere is a ball-like shape that can be immediately recognized. Ray intersection usually starts with a faster check against the bounding box of the cylinder, before you do the more expensive check against the cylinder geometry. Sphere intersection with ray-distance dependent radius. Intersection of a sphere and a cylinder The intersection curve of a sphere and a cylinder is a space curve of the 4th order. - POV-Ray Tutorials POV-Ray Introduction Content - INDEX 1. It also has the advantage (because of its simplicity) to be very fast. Exactly one solution, if b*b-4. Its graph is the circle of radius k, centered at the pole. Chapter 2: Ray Casting! Ray-sphere intersection! Algorithm:! – Implicit form of sphere given center (a,b,c) and radius r:! – Intersection with the ray x(t)=o+tv gives:! – Taking into account the identity!! the intersection is a quadratic equation in t:! – Solving for t: !! Real solutions indicate one point (tangent point) or two. It is simple to imagine that a line intersecting a sphere can result 0 intersections, 1 intersection (if tangent) or at most 2 intersections. I created a box, then copied it to an array, then created a sphere, moved it so that it overlapped the boxes. Note that b2 - 4 * a * c < 0 if the ray does not hit the sphere. From GLM_GTX. Here, (t0,t1) are the two values of t for which the ray intersects the sphere. cc] Ray-sphere. Fill in the sphere intersection code so that your ray tracer can display spheres. We subtract rayTravelledVector from spherePosition and get the vector distanceFromSphere. generic sphere is Approach: ray r(t) hits a surface when its implicit eqn = 0 So for ray with starting point S and direction c F(x,y,z) x y z2 1 ( ) 0 ( ). Distance-based models are common in computer-aided geometric design and in the modeling of articulated figures. A ray through the focus will be reflected parallel to the optical axis (blue line). Code (csharp): public static bool LineIntersection (Vector2 p1,Vector2 p2, Vector2 p3, Vector2 p4, ref Vector2 intersection ). 9/21/17 CSU CS 410 Fall 2017 ©Ross Beveridge & Bruce Draper P. However here, we need to elaborate on the concept in a manner much more precise. Back when I was in grad school I got inspired by Paul Heckbert’s business card ray tracer challenge and wrote my own version as a way to procrastinate from working on my thesis. it will return true if there is intersection. Callable Program OptiX Execution Model rtContextLaunch Ray Generation. If a ray does not intersect the sphere, then it cannot intersect any of the geometric targets inside the sphere, and many ray intersection computations can be avoided. To be as specific as I can: The following snippet is supposed to calculate the intersection point between a ray and a spherical boundary with a predefined radius and the origin as. Recommend:webgl - Three. Therefore, the basic computation performed by a ray tracer is the calculation of the intersection points between rays and objects. Let pc be that projection. Object: intersection ( Type1 obj1, Type2 obj2) Two objects obj1 and obj2 intersect if there is a point p that is part of both obj1 and obj2. 3 Intersection of a Ray and a Sphere 6. Take a look at the function int raySphereIntersection(Ray ray, TSphere c, PVector S1, PVector S2);. • If no object was hit this is simply the background color, which shade() returns. direction(), r. A plane is a flat surface that extends indefinitely. Precision Improvements for Ray/Sphere Intersection, by Eric Haines, Johannes Günther, and Tomas Akenine-Möller 8. In order to check for the sphere intersecting with the polygon, three checks were necessary: Check if the sphere lies completely outside the plane formed by the polygon. What if we want to perform ray-ellpisoid intersection checks? One way is to make a new intersection function with rays and ellipsoids. 3 Normal Vector Calculation 148 6. That is orders of magnitude slower than computing ray-line intersection in compiled and vectorized code. Intersection of line and cylinder - Ray tracing. Geometrically we can imagine expanding a sphere S 0 around p 0 until it intersects the surface. For solving the problem, the idea is to travel along a ray, say the 1st one in ptEndSet, with using PlotRange to restrict the considering region as local as possible, so iff this ray intersects a surface, otherwise we won't see the surface during the whole journey. To find the ray-sphere intersection we need to find the points that simultaneously satisfy both the equation of the sphere and the equation of the ray. Calculate intersection point 6. Ray-Sphere Intersection § rIntersection point: § Much early work in ray tracing focused on ray-primitive intersection tests § Cones, cylinders, ellipsoids. Function is also renamed since its not returning a boolean anymore. Ray - Sphere Intersection : Example Given a ray with an origin at [1 −2 −1] and a direction vector of [1 2 4], find the nearest intersection point with a sphere of radiusS r = 3 centered at [3 0 5]. 3D Ray Intersecting a 3D Sphere. The calculator can do statistics, best fits, function plotting, integration. To find the intersection between the view ray and the scene, we start at the camera, and move a point along the view ray, bit by bit. View Map Legend. equals (plane : Plane) : Boolean. Recursive Ray Tracing Ray hits an object at P Cast a shadow ray S from P to each light If shadow ray does not intersect any other object, calculate direct illumination from light I L Cast a reflected ray R from P and find its contribution, I R Cast a refracted ray T from P and find its contribution, I T C = w LI L+w RI R+w TI T. The reciprocal-space of a crystal (blue), contains an array of peaks. I created a box, then copied it to an array, then created a sphere, moved it so that it overlapped the boxes. vOrginCircle : center of the circle , r is the radius , vtLineStart: Line start point, vtLineEnd : Line end point, outIp : intersecting point. Intersection of line and cylinder - Ray tracing. A plane and the entire part. Basic Geometric Objects sphere, box, cylinder, cone, torus, plane. C++ (Cpp) Sphere::intersection - 3 examples found. It has to be normalized to get realistic results. , intersecting lines/rays with surface meshes, and retrieving the coordinates of those intersection points. GLSL ray-sphere intersection. 2 Refraction Vector Calculation. It is simple to imagine that a line intersecting a sphere can result 0 intersections, 1 intersection (if tangent) or at most 2 intersections. Intersection queries for two intervals (1-dimensional query). &t1)) 00067 return false; 00068 00069 // Compute intersection distance along ray 00070 00083 00084 // Test. Intersection of a Ray with a Sphere. A functor object to detect intersections between two geometric objects. If u is greater or equal to 0 but less than or equal to 1, the intersection occurs on the interval [pos0,pos1]. In this case, none of them is occluded, so the point is fully lit by the area light. The fastest way is to use a geometrical approach, reducing the problem to finding the intersection between the atmospheric sphere and the view ray from the camera. Additionally the vectorized intersection function will be taking a mask, which determines which rays should be touched by the function in the first place. Ray/Sphere Intersection • Is there another way? • What if we move the sphere to the origin? , , =− , , Ray/Sphere Intersection • Is there another way? • What if we move the sphere to the origin? • How will we get the ray to hit the sphere at the origin? =− , , Ray/Sphere Intersection • Is there another way? • What if we move. This is covered in this blog post. 0 2011-11-08, // v1. To find the intersection point on sphere we can replace the returned value of t from the above method into ray equation, which in turn give us the intersection point on closest sphere. , 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA 00033 * 00034 ***** ggt-cpr end */ 00035. (distance queries, point-to-triangle, definition of a ray, ray-sphere intersection, ray-triangle intersection, triangle-triangle intersection) Lecture 15: Spatial Data Structures (acceleration via bounding volume hierarchies and space partitioning structures). Therefore, the basic computation performed by a ray tracer is the calculation of the intersection points between rays and objects. Next up is computing t values for two possible ray-sphere intersection points (remember: for 4 spheres at once), and checking which ones of those satisfy conditions. Once the 3D object is determined the test can be further refined to determine exactly which polygon was selected on that 3D object. Chapter 16 - CSG ray intersection test gives wrong t value. Raytracing with Python I hope this page will inspire young programmers to see how easy it is to create something fun. The function returns true if there is an intersection along direction as t (the time of impact) ranges from 0 to 1, including an initial intersection at t equals zero. function sphereIntersection (sphere, ray) {var eye_to_center = Vector. vOrginCircle : center of the circle , r is the radius , vtLineStart: Line start point, vtLineEnd : Line end point, outIp : intersecting point. When I got some interesting data, the method is limited for specific object's surfaces (e. For example, intersecting a ray with an ellipsoid can be reduced to intersecting a ray with a unit sphere (centered at the origin). This body has properties such as velocity, position, rotation, torque, etc. Prev: Ray-Sphere Intersection: Next: Catmull-Rom Spline Given a ray, i. The intersection point that we're after is one such point on the ray so there must be some value of t, call it t star, such that I equals R of t star. 686 CHAPTER 9 POLAR COORDINATES AND PLANE CURVES The simplest equation in polar coordinates has the form r= k, where kis a positive constant. Sphere Interactions The surface of the geosphere, where the rocky part of our planet is in contact with water, air, and/or life is generally where the spheres intersect and affect each other. Intersection of a circle and a line. The middle image shows a ray that intersects a sphere at two points ( b2 − c>0) determined by the scalars t1 and t2. The computationally expensive part of raytracing geometric primitives is testing the intersection of a ray with the primitive. Relevant herein means that a line primitive (ray, segment, line) is tested against a planar or solid primitive (plane, triangle, box. Exactly one solution, if b*b-4. The middle image shows a ray that intersects a sphere at two points ( b2 − c>0) determined by the scalars t1 and t2. To find the intersection point on sphere we can replace the returned value of t from the above method into ray equation, which in turn give us the intersection point on closest sphere. >>> s = set ("Hacker") >>> print s. direction()); auto c = dot(oc, oc) - radius*radius; auto discriminant = b*b - 4*a*c; ~~~~~ [Listing [ray-sphere-before]: [main. Implement the Whitted illumination model, which includes Phong shading (emissive, ambient, diffuse, and specular terms) as well as reflection and refraction terms. Implementing the basic shapes in a ray tracer (sphere, rectangle, plane, etc) is relatively straightforward. ) Introduction to Linux as 4 KB Platform Some information regarding shrinking binaries to 4 KB on Linux. Ray-Sphere Intersection II • Simplify to • Solve to obtain t0 and t1 where Check if t0, t1> 0 (ray) Return min(t0, t1) Ray-Sphere Intersection III • For lighting, calculate unit normal • Negate if ray originates inside the sphere!. magnitude -- distance between O and E (range of ray) local L = C - O -- vector from origin to center local tca = L:Dot(D) -- measure of. After find out the intersec point for ray and objects, the next issue is render the color for that point. 15-462 Computer Graphics I Assignment 7 - Ray Tracing 150 points Overview. Harrop 105 line C++ ray tracer. 4 Intersection of a Ray and a Cylinder 6. Performs a segment intersection using the specified two world positions. Here's a example. Our objective now is to determine the intersection equation between a given line and a sphere it must be a set of (x,y,z) points which satisfies both equations. Ray intersection usually starts with a faster check against the bounding box of the cylinder, before you do the more expensive check against the cylinder geometry. 3) A ray tracer contains a diverse selection of geometric computations, like rotation, translation, reflection, refraction, (signed) distance computation, and line-plane and line-sphere intersection computations. Adapted from LibGDX. 1 Intersection of a Ray and a Triangle 141 6. direction is the vector we will be sweeping along and sweepResult is information about. This last method is a nice middleground between the "hacky" pure-OpenGL implementation, and having to integrate a fully-featured physics engine just to do raycasts and picking. Consequently, the core of OptiX is a domain-specific just-in-time compiler that generates custom ray tracing kernels by combining user-supplied programs for ray generation, material shading, object intersection, and scene traversal. Basic Ray Tracing Algorithm for every pixel { cast a ray from the eye for every object in the scene find intersections with the ray keep it if closest } compute color at the intersection point} Construct a Ray 3D parametric line Ray-Sphere Intersection. Ray/sphere intersection in Python. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. my apologies im not sure if this is the place for this question. Finding Points of Intersection between Ray and Bounding Box tell where said intersection occurs. Ray directions on the unit sphere map to three possible intersection planes. This curve can be a one-branch curve in the case of partial intersection, a two-branch curve in the case of complete intersection or a curve with one double point if the surfaces have a common tangent plane. In Ray-Sphere intersection is $b=2*(O-C) \cdot dirv$? Where $dirv$ is the Ray direction vector. Farouk Ounane. (It might work already much better if you put all lines into a single MeshRegion. We can do a ray-sphere intersection test to determine if each pixel can "see" the sphere. The device was capable of unlocking the powers of those with the Conduit gene and responsible for the Blast in New Marais and Empire City. Ray-Sphere Intersection (20) What is the value for the parameter t of the intersection points between a ray with parametric equation | | + t | | | and a sphere centered at the origin with radius 1? Hint (1) t has two values (2) one method to find the intersection is to use the implicit definition of the sphere and the parametric definition of. Hair Reflection BSDF gives a direction which points into the sphere. We need to represent the concept of a sphere in a mathematical manner. From GLM_GTX. If the ray does not intersect this shape return Double. \$\endgroup\$ – DMGregory ♦ Mar 23 '19 at 3:05 add a comment | 0. intersection with minimal t 0 [Suffern] Orthographic camera with parallel rays. With ray tracing however, the application directly accesses the root table memory (rather than using “setter” methods),. Sphere vs Plane Intersection. These are the top rated real world C++ (Cpp) examples of Sphere::intersection from package dotfiles extracted from open source projects. Intersection of Spring and 6th Sts Alternative Title Security Pacific National Bank Photo Collection Contributing Institution Los Angeles Public Library Collection Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection Rights Information Images available for reproduction and use. 3D Ray Intersecting a 3D Sphere. Chapter 16 - CSG ray intersection test gives wrong t value. JMU Computer Science Course Information. Intersection of line and cylinder - Ray tracing. IntersectionTests. If the distance from pc to the ray is equal to the radius of the sphere, then the intersection is a single point: pc (sphere B). This will include loading such meshes from STL files, performing the intersections, as well as visualizing the mesh, lines, and points in VTK. 4 Ray-Sphere intersection p r u r x c d r Now, let us look at another exam-ple that is very common in ray-casting, that is the problem of ray-sphere intersection, diagrammed in the gure to the left. geometric calibration and detector distortion correction. Recreational Mathematics > Mathematical Art > Ray-Traced Images > Cylinder-Sphere Intersection The curve formed by the intersection of a cylinder and a sphere is known as Viviani's curve. The triangle turns into a solid. This paper focuses on the acceleration of ray-triangle intersection operation which is the one of the most important operations in various applications such as collision detection and ray tracing. sweepSphere is the sphere we will be sweeping and pt is the point we are sweeping against. 4 Intersection of a Ray and a Cylinder 145 6. Ray Tracing with OptiX Ray-Sphere Intersection Pinhole Camera Shadow Ray Intersection (hit) Any Hit: rtTerminateRay Closest Hit. A shadow ray is shot towards the light source; since that shadow ray reaches the light source, the intersection point on the red sphere would be lit, and is not shadowed. Fill in the sphere intersection code so that your ray tracer can display spheres. The previous posts documented methods for checking for different forms of collision. The first test uses the midpoint and radius, and the second test four points of the sphere, as parameters. Decyphering the Business Card Raytracer. All Forums. direction()); auto b = 2. Ray-Sphere Intersection Last time we played with a "canonical camera": Eye is at the origin (0, 0, 0) Looking down the negative z axis To get the ray in the global coordinate system we simply need to apply the same equation as above to change the basis: Generating a camera basis. Implement the Whitted illumination model, which includes Phong shading (emissive, ambient, diffuse, and specular terms) as well as reflection and refraction terms. It handles vectors, matrices, complex numbers , quaternions , coordinates , regular polygons and intersections. r 2 = (x-cx) 2 +(y-cy) 2 +(z. Then we’ll perform the ray-sphere intersection. 0 * dot(oc, r. Inserting this parametric ray equation into the implicit representation gives F[x(t)] = 0; which can often be conveniently solved for t. As usual, a root signature can contain any combination of constants, descriptor tables, and root descriptors. For ray tracing, we shoot one ray per pixel into the scene (allowing a single reflection from the specular sphere). Figure 2: Bounding volume. GEOMETRY, a MATLAB library which carries out geometric calculations in 2, 3 and N space. Basic Geometric Objects sphere, box, cylinder, cone, torus, plane. No membership needed. In this case, none of them is occluded, so the point is fully lit by the area light. the closest in the direction of the ray) as its first index and the other one as its second. 3) A ray tracer contains a diverse selection of geometric computations, like rotation, translation, reflection, refraction, (signed) distance computation, and line-plane and line-sphere intersection computations. normal do = (ray. There was a typo in the test making it not compilable, and it could have been misleading. ­Ing Sibylle Nägle, MPI­DS 2 POV­Ray Developed in the 1980th First steps by David Kirk Buck, he called it DKBTrace It was turned to a group of developers in 1991. If there is any intersection (hit) between the ray and the sphere, then there must be point P, which is both on the ray, and on the sphere, which means. Intersection detection also plays a role in computer graphics in general as an ingredient in acceleration data structures, such as bounding volume hierarchies or Kd-trees. • Once information about the first hit is available, shade() finds the color of the ray. The sphere-ray intersection code therefore lives on in the sphere class. The intersection of that plane with the unit sphere is the geodesic light ray. Two Minute Papers 4,973 views. First it is necessary to check whether an intersectPoint is illuminated by a lightsource, or whether it is in shadow. The syntax of intersection () in Python is: The intersection () allows arbitrary number of arguments (sets). The Equations. 1 intersection point of line and sphere A. Terrain Layout. Thereby, the evaluation of more costly mathematical operations. We then determine the distance to the closest point on the surface. inc" camera {location < 4, 4, - 10 > look_at 0 angle 36} light_source { < 500, 500, - 1000 > White } plane {y, - 1. Once this has been determined,. Write the implicit equation for the sphere, the parametric equation for the ray, and compute the t-value of the intersection points. Sphere A is closest to an edge, whereas sphere B is closest to a corner. Otherwise, the intersection point is stored in out and then returned. Calculate intersection point 6. Very fast, in fact: The version with the precomputed data is twice as fast as the Möller-Trumbore code that everyone seems to be using. Ray directions on the unit sphere map to three possible intersection planes. Finding Points of Intersection between Ray and Bounding Box tell where said intersection occurs. Ray-Sphere Intersection We've already seen a parametric representation of a sphere! Because it's a 2D surface, we needed 2 parameter variables and : But since our rays are in parametric form, it's going to be easier to intersect a ray with an implicit equation for the sphere. Shade depending on light and. The only peaks that are observed on the detector are those that intersect the Ewald sphere. The Ray Sphere is a device developed by the mentalist organization, the First Sons and funded by DARPA. If you draw a ray with a pencil, examination with a microscope would show that the pencil mark has a measurable width. A line is defined by two points; it is infinite in length passing through the points and extending forever in both directions. Ideally, I would need to make the radius of the sphere depend on the distance to the ray(s) origin, say, proportional to it (them). Ray-Tracer in C++ from scratch. The intersection point on the floor plane also spawns three rays. origin() - center; auto a = dot(r. Theory of computation. The result of an intersection test is the distance from the origin of the ray to the closest intersection with the surface in the direction of the ray. Inserting a general line equation: Into sphere surface equation: Gives a quadratic equation for t in terms of the known input vectors and R. This we will call the ray-sphere intersection calculation. Hardware-Accelerated Ray-Triangle Intersection Testing for High-Performance Collision Detection Sung-Soo Kim, Seung-Woo Nam, Do-Hyung Kim and In-Ho Lee Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute. Sphere Tracing A ray begins at point p 0. An ellipsoid can be viewed as the image of an affine transformation applied to the unit sphere. Let a: -3x + 7y = -10 be a line and c: x^2 + 2y^2 = 8 be an ellipse. For example, the solution to any second-order equation in variable t, at2 +bt+c =0 (1) is given by the quadratic formula, t = b± p b2 4ac 2a (2) Analytic solutions exist for the intersection of a ray and certain. For example, this is a common calculation to perform during ray. These techniques can be used for the sphere intersection and modified if necessary. This will include loading such meshes from STL files, performing the intersections, as well as visualizing the mesh, lines, and points in VTK. The intersection curve of two sphere always degenerates into the absolute conic and a circle. png 4,000 × 3,000; 1. There was a typo in the test making it not compilable, and it could have been misleading. Given this information, we want to find out if ray R intersects sphere S. Suppose the ray is starting from P1, and going through P2; and the sphere is of radius r, and center at C. Test only front. Ray-Sphere Intersection II • Simplify to • Solve to obtain t0 and t1 where Check if t0, t1> 0 (ray) Return min(t0, t1) Ray-Sphere Intersection III • For lighting, calculate unit normal • Negate if ray originates inside the sphere!. Learn more about sphere, ray, intersection, 3d MATLAB. For each sphere in the input list, if the ray intersects (determined using the sphere_intersection_point function), add a pair to the list to be returned containing the sphere and the intersection point. Intersection of a ray with a sphere. The fastest way is to use a geometrical approach, reducing the problem to finding the intersection between the atmospheric sphere and the view ray from the camera. Performs a ray intersection using the specified position and direction. The overlap and intersection of the pixel ray with the sphere can be solved by replacing x in the sphere equation, with the ray equation. This results in the definition of a surface as a real = function" on the sphere. This means that we can refer to their position not as a point in 3D space, but as the distance on the view ray from the origin. From my tests: AABB-Sphere: 2954. Signed distance functions are based on the idea that every primitive object must be represented with a function. If you want to know where then you can easily alter the code to return the triplet (t,u,v). Edited by Andrew S. Calculate t 0 4. Such a test for a sphere is the most efficient of all primitives, one only needs to determine whether the closest position of the center of the sphere to the ray is less than the radius of the sphere. Consider a ray out from that point - how far does that ray travel in the intersection of the cylinders?. If the result of this is that tc is less than 0, it means that the ray does not intersect the sphere, and we can bail out of our intersection test early. Raytracing: Intersection with a sphere Follow-up to Raytracing: Intersection with a plane from Nick's blog.